Don’t know much about cancer? Well, you’re not alone. Cancer is one of those scary illnesses that gives people the willies (and rightly so). Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States (heart disease is number one). Each year, more than 1.5 million new cases are reported (including around 640,000 cases of breast cancer and nearly 500,000 cases of lung cancer).
But when it comes down to it, there’s more to it than just bad luck or happening to rub some random person the wrong way — and this article will hopefully show you just that. Cancer refers to as a large class of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. This can cause malignant tumors to form in organs or tissues, which can lead to cancer cell death, reduced organ function, and sometimes death. Types of cancer have different signs and symptoms, stages, risk factors, prevention methods, and treatments.
Types Of Cancer in Human
The types of cancer are categorized into two major groups: carcinomas and sarcomas. There are more than 200 types of cancer that can affect humans. Some cancers develop from a single cell and grow in a restricted area. These are called a carcinomas and include the common forms of breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and skin cancer.
1) Carcinomas Cancer
- Carcinomas have cell structures that cover one layer of tissue and grow slowly. They are more likely than other cancers to grow inward and infect nearby tissues, so they spread earlier to distant parts of the body (metastasis).
- Carcinomas are malignant neoplasms derived from epithelial cells. The majority of carcinomas are of epithelial origin, originating from the skin or gums. Carcinomas can be subclassified into different types based on their appearance under a microscope and/or their cell of origin.
- Carcinomas are cancers that arise from epithelial cells and the tissues they line: skin, the lining of the digestive tract, the cervix, vagina and other reproductive organs. Carcinomas of epithelial origin make up about 80 per cent of all human cancers.
- Carcinomas are malignant tumors that develop in epithelial cells, which become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably. They grow slowly, but can spread (metastasize) to other areas of the body.
Carcinomas can be further subdivided into four subtypes: carcinomas in situ (carcinoma that has not invaded surrounding tissue), invasive carcinomas (carcinomas that has invaded surrounding tissue), adenocarcinomas (carcinomas arising from mucus-producing glandular tissue) and squamous cell carcinomas (carcinomas arising from thin, flat cells covering internal and external surfaces).
Cancerous tumours differ from benign tumours in that malignant cells can invade and destroy normal tissue around them. A malignant tumour may also spread to other parts of the body (metastasis), where it sets up secondary tumours or metastases.
To check the extent of the disease (stage), at least one lymph node should be removed for microscopic evaluation.
- The tumour site, its size and its aggressiveness (rate of growth).
- The patient’s age, physical fitness, and general health.
- Whether or not cancer has metastasized
- And whether or not cancer has recurred after previous treatment.
Frequently Asked Questions
2) Sarcomas Cancer
- Sarcomas tend to develop in bones and soft tissues (muscles, fat, or blood vessels), tend to grow outward rather than inward, metastasize later than carcinoma do, and rarely produce fluids that build up inside the body cavity.
- Sarcoma are a diverse group of rare cancers that develop in the bones or soft tissues. They are not as common as other types of cancer, but they are often difficult to treat. Sarcoma are usually treated by teams of doctors who specialize in sarcoma treatment (sarcoma specialists).
- Treatment depends on the type of sarcoma and how advanced it is when you are diagnosed. In general, the earlier the cancer is found, the better the treatment outcome.
- Like other types of cancer, sarcomas can be cured if they’re found and treated early. But because most people with sarcoma don’t have any symptoms until the cancers are much larger, many people do not survive. Sarcoma should be taken seriously and diagnosed early to give you the best chance for successful treatment.
About This Condition
Sarcomas account for only 2% of all new cancer cases each year. Although they often occur in adults between 30 and 50 years old, some sarcoma affect children or teenagers.
People who have a family history of sarcoma may be at higher risk of getting these cancers. Also, some types of chemicals can increase your risk of developing certain kinds of sarcoma
Frequently Asked Questions
General risk factors for cancer include:
- Older age
- A personal or family history of cancer
- Using tobacco
- Some types of viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV)
- Specific chemicals
- Exposure to radiation, including ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
You have many risk factors for skin cancer. Some risk factors, such as getting older or having a family history of skin cancer, cannot be changed. But you can change things that put you at increased risk. To do so, stop smoking and don’t drink alcohol, get more sun exposure because it’s healthy, and cut back on tanning beds and outdoor UV light. Avoid overexposure to UV light from the sun or indoor tanning devices.
Risk factors and cancer screening :
Understanding risk factors for cancer can help your doctor decide whether you are at risk for developing cancer. Use our cancer risk assessment tool to learn more about your estimated lifetime risk of developing various types of cancers.
Your family history is important. If you have a parent or sibling who had breast cancer, you have an increased risk of getting breast cancer. Fortunately, there are ways that you can reduce your risk, or lower it to a very low level. You may choose to have your breast removed (mastectomy) to prevent cancer from forming in the other breast. However, this does not always mean that you will not get any kind of cancer later in life. It will just lower your lifetime chance of developing breast cancer by at least 95%.
If you have a strong family history of cancer, your doctor or genetic counselor may ask about your risk factors for developing certain cancers. This information can help determine whether genetic testing may be useful for you.