Artificial intelligence (AI) uses mathematical algorithms to replicate human cognitive abilities and treat challenging healthcare issues such as cancer. Cancer is a complicated and complex disease with thousands of genetic and epigenetic variants. AI-based techniques promise to pave the way for the early detection of congenital abnormalities and abnormal protein interactions.
In cancer diagnosis and treatment, clinical applications of AI are the future of medical guidance toward speedier mapping of a novel therapy for each individual. Researchers can cooperate in real-time and share knowledge online using the AI-based system approach, potentially healing millions.
Table of Contents
Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Prediction
To detect cancer, a patient goes through several pathological tests. These include blood tests, X-Rays, CT Scans, MRI scans, and many more. Bringing in AI here helps you get more accurate results. Let’s see how.
AI Applications in Cancer Imaging
Within cancer imaging, AI finds great utility in performing 3 main clinical tasks: Detection, Characterization, and Monitoring of tumors.
Detection is locating objects of interest in radiography, often termed computer-assisted detection (CADe). They can employ AI-based detection technologies to minimize observational errors and act as the first line of defense against omission errors.
CADe has been accustomed to improving radiologist sensitivity for the following:
- Detecting abnormalities in general
- Discovering brain metastases in MRIs to enhance radiology interpretation time while maintaining high detection sensitivity
- Finding micro-calcification clusters in screening mammography as an indicator of early breast cancer carcinoma
- Detecting incomprehensible cancers in low-dose CT screening
Tumor segmentation, diagnosis, and staging are all part of the characterization process.
⮚ Segmentation: The extent of an aberration is defined through segmentation. It might range from simple 2D measurements of the tumor’s maximum in-plane diameter to more complex volumetric segmentation. This is where the complete tumor, and any underlying tissue, are assessed.
⮚ Diagnosis: The classification of problematic lesions as benign or malignant leads to a visual interpretation by radiologists. Human data and skills are applied in clinical settings to overcome such problems using an intuitive, qualitative basis.
⮚ Staging: Tumors are categorized into preset groups in stage based on distinctions in the appearance and spread of their cancer indicative of the expected clinical course and treatment methods.
Artificial intelligence (AI) can play an increasingly important role in tracking changes in a tumor over time, whether in its natural history or response to treatment.
Traditional tumor temporal monitoring has generally been restricted to specified criteria, such as tumor longest diameter, for calculating tumor burden and predicting therapy response. On the other hand, AI-based tracking may record many discriminative elements across photos over time that go beyond what human readers can detect.
AI Applications in Blood Test
Blood testing with artificial intelligence can help doctors identify cancer more precisely. Blood profiling, which analyses ctDNA and miRNA plasma profiles using AI algorithms, is better for detecting and monitoring cancer than normal CT scans.
The Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers created a revolutionary AI-based system for detecting lung cancer through blood tests. He evaluated blood samples of 796 people in the United States, Denmark, and the Netherlands. This blood test was paired with protein biomarkers, clinical risk factors, and CT scans by the researchers. Consequently, they correctly identified cancer in 91 percent of early-stage patients and 96 percent of patients with advanced cancer stages.
AI Applications in Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy is a huge step forward in cancer treatment. It’s sometimes difficult to tell whether or not a patient will respond to treatment. However, the introduction of AI improves the chances of successful cancer immunotherapy by predicting the therapeutic effect using immunotherapy predictive scores.
The two scoring systems designed to predict immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapeutic response are Immunoscore and Immunophenoscore. When distinguishing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) patterns linked to immunotherapy response, AI technology has a 91.66 percent accuracy rate.
As a result, the use of AI in cancer immunotherapy may result in better patient outcomes.
AI Applications in Precision Oncology
Individual tumor cells are precisely targeted and characterized in precision oncology. The production of enormous digital datasets gathered through next-generation sequencing (NGS), the employment of algorithms for image processing, patient-related health records, and data originating from large clinical trials and illness forecasts will all change the future of healthcare.
AI’s pattern recognition capabilities and complicated algorithms can be useful to gather meaningful clinical data and reduce diagnostic and therapeutic errors. All included early detection, personalized or targeted therapy based on the patient’s genetic information and future result forecasts.
Machine learning is an effective technique in oncology with varied applications in precision medicine. In radionics, fields of computers extract diagnostic imaging to spot malignant tumors that are tough to sight with the naked eye. Deep learning is the most extensively used AI technique
AI Applications in Drug Development
Different forms of cancer may react differently to the same therapy. AI can predict how malignant cells will respond to various treatments. This knowledge aids in the development of novel anticancer medications as well as understanding when to use them.
AI has applications in drug screening, drug design, chemical synthesis, polypharmacology, and drug repurposing, to name a few.
- Predicting the 3D shape of the target molecule.
- Predicting drug-protein interaction.
- AI in determining drug activity.
- AI in the prediction of chemical yield.
- AI in the prediction of retrosynthesis pathways.
- AI in designing the synthetic route.
- Prediction of toxicity.
- Prediction of bioactivity.
- Prediction of physiochemical property.
- Designing bio specific drug molecules.
- Designing multitarget drug molecules.
- Identification of therapeutic target.
- Predicting potential therapeutic use.
AI Applications in Genome Sequencing
AI can aid tumor characterization and individualized treatment development by improving genomic sequencing. The cancer diagnostics technique combines artificial intelligence (AI) pattern recognition with whole genomic sequencing to accomplish rapid, reliable residual disease diagnosis.
Doctors don’t know if a small bit of cancer lingers in a patient’s body after removing a tumor. It results in the agonizingly painful and expensive problem of over-and-under treatment. Whole-genome sequencing can detect extremely low amounts of tiny tumors in the blood and track how patients respond to treatment using AI pattern recognition.
According to the C2i Genomics Company, the technique is up to 100 times more sensitive than related technologies.
AI Applications in Surgery
New AI-based applications and surgical advancements are both attractive research topics. Oncologists have benefited from clinical machine interaction for decades. AI aid has been shown to reduce the occurrence of breast-conserving surgery (mastectomy) by 30.6 percent. In contrast, high-risk patient tissue biopsies were only proven benign after surgery in earlier procedures.
In today’s clinical practice, machine learning algorithms that reliably forecast high-risk cancer lesions using image-guided needle biopsies and pathology updates are critical: they can reduce the number of unnecessary surgical excisions. Many research groups have built random forest ML models to predict cancer survival and long-term cognitive outcomes. A random forest ML model examined 335 high-risk cancer patients in a clinical investigation. It was discovered that it might avert approximately one-third of unnecessary procedures.
Benefits of AI in Cancer Detection and Treatment
In healthcare, AI contains a wide selection of applications. The four key advantages of employing artificial intelligence in cancer treatment and detection are as follows:
With the help of AI and big data, doctors can examine various data about the patient and cancer cells to develop individualized treatments. This form of therapy will have fewer negative side effects. It will be more practical against cancer cells while being less harmful to healthy cells.
Cedars Sinai Cancer Institute collaborates with Tempus, a Chicago-based AI and precision medicine company, to develop molecular twins for cancer patients treated with artificial intelligence. These twins are exact duplicates of those individuals. They contain data like RNA, DNA, and proteins, and they facilitate doctors opt for the best effective cancer treatment for every person.
Reducing False Positives and Negatives
AI in cancer detection will enhance diagnosis accuracy and decrease false positives and negatives. Breast cancer detection research provides proof. One out of every ten female patients receives false-positive results from mammograms, and these women should deal with the strain and spare procedures.
In mammography readings, Google’s analysis team made an AI-powered software package that reduced false positives by 6% and false negatives by 9%. Another set of researchers created an AI algorithm for detecting breast cancer. Our methodology helped radiologists cut false-positive rates by 37.3 percent during an evaluation.
Eliminating Cancer Overtreatment
Radiologists can use AI to determine whether tumors/abnormalities are malignant and require therapy. AI algorithms can identify premalignant tumors in cervical images and separate those from other irregularities, as per the research published in the National Cancer Institute’s journal, thereby saving patients from being overtreated for small problems.
Identifying Tumor Types without Invasive Procedures
Doctors may discover the tumor is benign only after the procedure is completed and could have avoided the surgery. The use of AI in cancer detection can drastically reduce such incidences.
To Sum it Up
Using artificial intelligence is helping doctors to be more accurate with analyzing an individual patient’s actual condition. Thus, the patient is able to receive the perfect treatment that he requires to heal quickly. The treatment too is formulated using the assistance of AI. This makes AI an efficient tool for detecting and treating cancer on time.